שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי, אמר לו: גיירני על מנת שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת. דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו. בא לפני הלל, גייריה. אמר לו: דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד - זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך - פירושה הוא זיל גמור.On another occasion it happened that a certain non-Jew came before Shammai [a rival scholar to Hillel] said to him, “I will convert to Judaism, on condition that you teach me the whole Torah while I stand on one foot.” Shammai chased him away with the builder's tool that was in his hand. He came before Hillel and said to him, "Convert me." Hillel said to him, “What is hateful to you, do not to your neighbor: that is the whole Torah; the rest is commentary; go and learn it.”
.כאזרח מכם יהיה לכם הגר ׀ הגר אתכם ואהבת לו כמוך כי־גרים הייתם בארץ מצרים אני יהוה אלהיכ
The alien who resides with you shall be to you as the citizen among you; you shall love the alien as yourself, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord your God.
Among themselves, the Jews were not to seek vengeance against one who had harmed them.
לא־תקם ולא־תטר את־בני עמך ואהבת לרעך כמוך אני יהוהYou shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the sons of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself; I am the LORD.
The vengeful will suffer the LORD'S vengeance, for he remembers their sins in detail.
Forgive your neighbor's injustice; then when you pray, your own sins will be forgiven.
Should a man nourish anger against his fellows and expect healing from the LORD?
Should a man refuse mercy to his fellows, yet seek pardon for his own sins?
Do to no one what you yourself dislike. (NAS)[I could not find Tobit in its Hebrew or originally Chaldean text with this verse.]
Quod ab alio odis fieri tibi vide ne alteri tu aliquando facias. (Vulgate)
Et quod oderis, alio ne feceris. (Itala)
ὃ μισεῖς, μηδενὶ ποιήσῃς (Septuagint)
The Letter of Aristeas (or Pseudo-Aristeas), a work famous for its description of the translation of the Jewish Scriptures from Hebrew to Greek (giving us the Septuagint), and cited by the Jewish historian Josephus, provides another interesting evidence of the centrality of the Golden Rule as a part of Jewish religious ethical teaching. The Letter of Aristeas has a part that describes to the Egyptian king the wisdom of the Jew by reciting the Golden Rule as a central principle, and it is phrased in both its negative and positive formulations.
The king received the answer with great delight and looking at another said, "What is the teaching of wisdom?" And the other replied, "As you wish that no evil should befall you, but to be a partaker of all good things, so you should act on the same principle towards your subjects and offenders, and you should mildly admonish the noble and good. For God draws all men to himself by his benignity."207. (English from R. H. Charles.)
Ἀποδεξάμενος δὲ εὖ μάλα καὶ τοῦτον ἐπιβλέψας εἶπεν, "Τί ἐστι σοφίας διδαχή?" ὁ δὲ ἕτερος ἀπεφήνατο. "Καθὼς οὐ βούλει σεαυτῷ τὰ κακὰ παρεῖναι, μέτοχος δὲ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ὑπάρχειν ἁπάντων, εἰ πράσσοις τοῦτο πρὸς τοὺς ὑποτεταγμένους καὶ τοὺς ἁμαρτάνοντας, εἰ τοὺς καλοὺς καὶ ἀγαθοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐπιεικέστερον νουθετοῖς· καὶ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἅπαντας ἐπιεικείᾳ ἄγει."
For the Jew, the Golden Rule was incorporated within the greater notion of obligation to God and to neighbor, specifically, as encapsulated in the Ten Commandments. The Golden Rule was therefore well-rooted in a greater understanding of man's relationship to God and man's relationship to his fellow men. This synaxis is clearly displayed in a manuscript found among the Dead Sea Scrolls known as "The Two Ways." Its teaching clearly is at the foundation of the early Christian text the Didache (Teaching of the Apostles):
The way of life is this: First, you shall love the Lord your maker, and secondly, your neighbor as yourself. And whatever you do not want to be done to you, you shall not do to anyone else. And the interpretation of these words is: Do not kill, do not commit adultery, do not bear false witness, do not fornicate, do not steal, do not covet what belongs to your neighbor.Wattles, 47 (quoting David Flusser, "The Ten Commandments and the New Testament" in The Ten Commandments in History and Tradition, Gershon Levi, ed. (Jerusalem: Magnes Press: Hebrew University), 235. [I could not independently verify this text.]
It happened that one came to R. Akiba and said to him, "Rabbi, teach me the whole Law all at once." He answered, "My son, Moses, our teacher, tarried on the mountain forty days and forty nights before he learned it, and you say, Teach me the whole Law all at once! Nevertheless, my son, this is the fundamental principle of the Law: That which you hate respecting yourself, do not to your neighbor. If you desire that no one injure you in respect to what is yours, then do not injure him. If you desire that no one should carry off what is yours, then do not carry of what is your neighbor's.